There is a great interest, in the last years, to produce energy from incineration process of non recyclable municipal waste, obtaining also a reduction of final landfill products.
In municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWI), waste products are mainly bottom ash, that is approximately 10 % by volume and approximately 20 to 30 % by weight of the solid waste input. Fly ash, that are the finest, lightest residues collected in many plants using a filtration system, are produced in much lower quantities, generally only a few per cent of input. Moreover, bottom ash treatment facilities can be performed to produce a low quality industrial aggregate, that can be used as construction material for some applications. At the moment, MSWI fly ash are, in the most of cases, discarded, for instance in lagoons, settling ponds, landfills or for example mines.
The aim of this project is to inertize the fly ash coming from solid waste incineration process for nearly complete re-use of all stabilised material, significantly reducing the landfilling. This may contribute to the ambitious objective of improve the EU recycling policy about waste management option, finally eliminating the landfilling of MSW ash.

Recently a new method to inert fly ash from MSWI, with a low temperature process has been developed and patented at the University of Brescia. This process is based on chemical reaction that occur opportunely mixing MSWI fly ash, previously added with other fly ash and commercial colloidal silica formulation. The obtained inert is called COSMOS material.

The European economy is based on a high level of resource consumption. This includes raw materials (such as metals, construction minerals or wood), energy and land. The main driving forces of Europe's resource consumption are economic growth, technological developments and changing consumption and production patterns. About one third of resources used are turned into waste and emissions. Around four tonnes of waste per capita are generated every year in the EEA member countries. Every European citizen on average throws away 520 kg of household waste per year, and this figure is expected to increase.”



In the Figure, each ball represents an european country, then they can be settled at different colors. The ball dimension can be chosen as a function of population. For example, select "Colori unici" for each country and "Dimensioni population" for bubbles dimensions. Then you can plot the variation of one variable as a function of the other (for example you can follow the variation of "Municipal waste incinerated" as a function of "Municipal waste generated" from 1995 to 2008.